4 / / 1 University Residential College: Whole-Person Education in Action The Experience of University of Macau ⛿㷞 㶇鵖 䑑 剹☭ ꯗ侷芎槏䗽 憭ꪎ㝕㳴溸䱳筻
2 / / 3 編輯：宋永華 蘇基朗 黃兆琳 顧問： 姚偉彬 藍志雄 劉潤東 梁美兒 莫啟明 彭執中 湯柏燊 黃承發 楊柳 葉銘泉 張本梓 張美芳 攝影：許恒嘉；住宿式書院辦公室、傳訊部及Chiii Design提供 排版及裝幀設計：Chiii Design 出版：澳門大學（中國澳門氹仔大學大馬路 ; https://www.um.edu.mo/） 日期：2021年10月 版權所有 翻印必究 Editors: Yonghua Song, So Kee-long Billy, Wong Siu-lam Natalie Advisors: Iu Vai Pan, Lam Chee Shiong Desmond, Lau Yun Tung, Leung May Yee Janny, Mok Kai Meng, Pang Chap Chong Paul, Kevin Thompson, Wong Seng Fat Alfred, Yang Liu, Yeh Ming Chuan, Zhang Benzi, Zhang Meifang Photography: Hsu Heng-chia; Residential College Offices, Communications Office, and Chiii Design Page-setting and cover design: Chiii Design Published by University of Macau: Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau, China; https://www.um.edu.mo Date: October, 2021 Copyright © University of Macau, 2021 All rights reserved.
4 / / 5 吿ꩾ㶑靤 ⯽阌 睙┞ꌄ╚锟⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ侷芎溸⯽┿♂气 第一章：中西書院教育傳統 第二章：現代中西住宿式書院發展 睙◝ꌄ憭㝕⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ1.0曭 第三章：源起和理念 第四章：組織及教育活動 第五章：圖說住宿式書院設施 第六章：圖說住宿式書院1.0版的五大能力指標教育 (1) 具國際視野的公民 (2) 人際關係與團隊合作 (3) 領導與服務 (4) 文化參與 (5) 健康生活 回顧與總結 睙┩ꌄ憭㝕⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ2.0曭 第七章：理念與設施 第八章：教育機制及組織 第九章：住宿式書院2.0版的七大勝任力教育 (1) 公民責任心 (2) 全球競爭力 (3) 知識整合能力 (4) 團隊協作 (5) 服務與領導 (6) 文化參與 (7) 健康生活 第十章：教育績效評估機制 篚靤 參考材料選目 澳大住宿式書院研究目錄初編 Message from the Rector Introduction Part I : College Education in China and the West in Historical Perspective Chapter 1: The Traditions in Education Chapter 2: Development of Modern Chinese and Western Residential Colleges Part II : UM Residential College Education 1.0 Chapter 3: Origin and Philosophy Chapter 4: Organisation and Educational Activities Chapter 5: Snapshots of Facilities in Residential Colleges Chapter 6: Pictures Illustrating the Training of the Five Competencies in RC 1.0 (1) Citizenship with global perspectives (2) Interpersonal relation and teamwork (3) Leadership and service (4) Cultural engagement (5) Healthy living Review and Summary Part III : UM Residential College Education 2.0 Chapter 7: Concept and Facilities Chapter 8: Education Programmes and Organisation Chapter 9: Seven Competencies of RC 2.0 Education (1) Responsible citizenship (2) Global competitiveness (3) Knowledge integration (4) Teamwork and collaboration (5) Service and leadership (6) Cultural engagement (7) Healthy lifestyle Chapter 10: Education Performance Assessment Concluding Remarks Reference Preliminary Bibliography on Studies of UM Residential Colleges 潨ꛉ / Content 06 08 1 1 12 22 33 34 44 60 71 82 85 86 94 104 114 118 120 122 07 08 1 1 16 26 33 38 47 60 71 82 85 90 98 108 117 118 120 122
6 / / 7 澳門大學（澳大）作為澳門唯一的綜合性公立大學，長期以來受到 中央及特區政府和社會各界的關心和支持。自1981年創校以來，一直 秉承“仁、義、禮、知、信”的校訓，並透過其獨特的教學模式和住 宿式書院（書院）系統，形成以專業、通識、研習及社群教育為主的 全人教育模式，建立了學院與書院相輔相成的協同育人教育體系，其 中履行社群教育的書院系統更是本科生教育的最大特色。 澳大書院是一個知識整合的學習平台，體現了大學揭櫫的四位一體 全人教育理念，力求培養學有所成以及情操高尚的大學畢業生。具體 而言，書院系統培育學生成為具有家國情懷的良好公民，他們具社會 責任心、遵紀守法，廉潔誠信，為澳門、國家乃至整個人類社會做出 貢獻。書院的社群生活及活動，亦旨在提升宿生在公民責任心、全球 競爭力、知識整合能力、團隊協作、服務與領導、文化參與及健康生 活方面的品格質素。 書院宿生來自不同專業背景，營造了充滿啟發性的環境，讓大家得 以互相學習，增廣見聞，豐富生活；並且培養全球視野、獨立思維及 文化自信，學習如何與不同專業和文化的人共存、溝通、合作，藉以 窺見畢業後事業途上的現實，準備好在這全球化世界啟航，提升學生 的全球競爭力。書院有駐院及非駐院學術導師，除提供個人指導以外， 亦開設自由參加的導修課，內容包括專業、通識以及專業語文等，藉 以幫助學生融會貫通學術知識、慎思明辨、創新創業。 2021 年，澳大迎來建校40 週年。深耕四十載，大學在人才培養、 科學研究、社會服務、對外合作等多方面不斷進步，在本地、區域及 國際的聲譽不斷提升。大學繼續積極配合特區政府的施政理念，推行 新的書院教育2.0 模式，發揮澳大在愛國愛澳人才培養方面的積極作 用。未來，澳大將不斷優化書院系統，繼續悉心構建全人教育環境， 實踐全人教育理念。 校長 宋永華 As the only public comprehensive university in Macao, the University of Macau (UM) has received longterm support from the central government, the Macao SAR government, and all sectors of society. Since its founding in 1981, UM has adhered to the virtues of ‘Humanity, Integrity, Propriety, Wisdom and Sincerity’. It emphasizes the holistic development of students by implementing a unique education model based on discipline-specific education, general education, research and internship education, and community and peer education; as well as an integrated education system in which faculties and residential colleges (RC) achieve synergy by complementing each other. In particular, the RC system is considered the jewel in the crown of UM’s undergraduate education. UM's RC system provides a platform for knowledge integration of the ‘4-in-1’ education model with the aim of cultivating well-rounded graduates equipped with intellectual and moral capabilities. It nurtures students to become contributing members of the society committed to upholding the values of patriotism, social responsibility, law-abidance, integrity and honesty, and devoting themselves to their motherland, Macao and humanity at large. The RC system strives to enhance students’ seven competencies through communal living and activities, including responsible citizenship, global competitiveness, knowledge integration, teamwork collaboration, service and leadership, cultural engagement, and healthy lifestyle. Students from different academic disciplines live together in each RCs, thereby creating a stimulating environment in which they can coexist, communicate and collaborate with people of different disciplines and cultural background, while maturing into globally aware, culturally confident life-long learners who can think independently and creatively. The enlightening RC experiences further enable students to confront real-life challenges after graduation and prepare them better for a fruitful and sustainable career amid global competition. In addition, RC’s Resident and Non-Resident Fellows are dedicated to conducting noncredit-bearing academic programs composing of disciplinary studies, general education, and academic language skills, targeting to support students to better integrate academic knowledge, to think critically, and to excel and venture beyond limitations. Celebrating its 40th anniversary in 2021, UM has made remarkable progress in nurturing professionals, scientific research, community service and international cooperation, with its rise in reputation locally, regionally and internationally. In line with the Macao SAR government’s policy, UM actively engages in cultivating patriotic and affectionate talents by promoting the innovative RC Education 2.0 model. In the future, UM shall continue its unceasing efforts to optimize the RC system, provide an environment conducive to academic excellence and pursue a whole-person education. Rector Yonghua Song 吿ꩾ㶑靤 / Message from the Rector
8 / / 9 ⯽阌 / Introduction 本書旨在說明澳大書院系統的源起、演進、願景。澳大書院參考了 哈佛耶魯等美國大學的住宿型書院 (House或Residential College) 及 牛津劍橋的書院 (College)，同時繼承了中國宋明書院的精神。澳大一 直秉承“仁、義、禮、知、信”的校訓，本科教育推行融合專業、通識、 研習及社群教育的“四位一體”教育模式。並透過此獨特的教育模式 以及作為社群教育重點的書院系統，達致為學生提供全人教育的目的。 澳大的教育使命，是培養澳門、國家及世界發展所需之具家國情懷、 國際視野、全球競爭力和有社會責任感的公民以及創新型的人才。澳 大書院系統在落實澳大本科育人理念上，扮演極為關鍵的角色。 This book aims to document the origin, evolution and vision of the RC system at UM. The system is modelled upon the house or RC system of Harvard and Yale in the US as well as the college system of Oxford and Cambridge in the UK, and has inherited the spirit of shuyuan (academy) during the Song and Ming dynasties in China. Adhering to the motto ‘Humanity, Integrity, Propriety, Wisdom, and Sincerity’, the university’s undergraduate education is structured on a 4-in-1 model integrating disciplinary education, general education, research and internship education, and community and peer education. This unique education model and the RC system, which is the core of the community and peer education, aim to foster the whole-person development of students. UM’s education mission is to cultivate responsible citizens and innovative leaders who are strong in national commitment and global competitiveness, with international outlook, meeting the needs of the advancement of Macao, their home country, and the world. The RC system thus plays a critical role in realising the university’s vision for undergraduate education.
10 / / 11 睙┞ꌄ | PART I ╚锟⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ侷芎 溸⯽┿♂气 College Education in China and the West in Historical Perspective
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14 / / 15 锟做侷芎⯜䍳戚问偠⺜䉤蓽㓻ꊞ溸嵟㐍◸侷芎 (paideia)Paideia 帏聋氌䏼䭇倁ⵋ倁僻倁 侷侷ⵋ瞐䟩䘽蕞╚㏔氮㴸㳴溭㺥䧯㴸瑮╒鉿溸 黈鴏ꂱ播劕⯂䉤蓽㓻ꊞ氮鬷傊侓妝╭⥏溸黉◜侷 芎悎首⮃긋黉◜溸宑ꪨ侷芎╒♧겎⪿侷芎掿⪿ 碄⯽劻㝂氮⠥⯂脛䊘 (didaskalos)⺥侅鬷傊掿 ╭溸㳴气⥝䱅둑芎剹㷫⾕跖銋瞐䪫跖蕞焒餠趦 ♧㕇넊䖎冝⫅⤭溸⻡㲳筷鮐 (kalos kagathos) ⪬⩧◩┿第♧䕁嵟㐍◸笢簣惓⮃槁꿕⛣㳴吿锺埜 溸㳴㏣ (scholé, 蝡饖 school)侷芎⪠㵽仺倁岻 ꉺ齬⟵ꀭ〡㳴⡡槏㳴悎颊겋ꀱ꼟垠 跖銋砰銋䌤✇㝙倁㐍槏婾⺮侓岖둑 芎瞐焒餠꽟㔔⪼╚倁岻ꉺ齬⟵ꀭ惓䓺䧯┩跖 (trivium)掿麃潸㸫偠㟚걳溸蔦氮宑 (liberalis) 䨿 䥧⪾溸焒餠⫙ꅾ┞婢➬䥧㳴肭㝙倁砰銋䌤✇ 꼟垠ⷬ㎃跖 (quadrivium)⪣脢⻉脯圸䧯♧┣跖 (ars, 蝡饖 arts) 掿╭둑溸ⷈ겎侷芎 (ars liberalis, 蝡饖 liberal arts)僂㐃㕇芎ꄾⷈ脯劕茥ⲇ䱳筻㴔㴺☭气 澶槏溸䖎冝겼溸蔦氮宑☊甭enkuklios paideia Enkuklios 劕⽠䕲欏册ꄾ㸩䊬瞐䟩䘽䟩ⷬ 긖☭呬溸侷芎䧶☭侷芎⪼╚ꌄ㳴㏣惓 䧯詈⻐侷芎塎圸⫅⪾煝㳴ゼ韣ꀱ澶槏侅趵 ㏨剹倁椀瞐ⲍ茥㠂參䬕㏨陮皒溸Academy ( ╚饖 參䬕㏨㳴㏣)◸ꓧ㛶㝂䖎䧯皒溸Lyceum ( ╚饖◸ ꓧ㛶㝂䖎㳴㏣) 瞐耈뉉䉤蓽ⵋ侷芎ꇂ䉿㏔⻄㐍 䔯䔯氮㴸做⮃魗侷芎⪠㵽纉䪩䉤蓽嵟㐍◸笢簣 䀧㹀☭倁筷넊 (humanitas, 蝡饖humanities)┞薯 䭇䨿額┣跖溸ⷈ겎侷芎⻎兎䲴⻉◗耈뉉獘劋⪬⩧ ⯽◩┿第վⶥ◝ꗸ銩岻տ♧❔┞鬫䒤鞬溸岻䔾⥝簣 耈뉉溸☭倁侷芎⻎埞僂㐃㕇芎䖎冝겼溸蔦氮耈 뉉⪬宑 ⪬⩧◩┿第锟耈뉉䉿㏔键☀娵嵍╚⺜兎♣䳻 䋝⯽劻ꓨ锣侷芎塎⯜龞瓌蔸㕈瀥侷⟵ꇕꯗꄾ ꇅ⺜倁椀溸䪲㷫阴絋㕇芎窣ꄾ䉤蓽耈뉉⺜⪿♧ 臋籮ꓦ聋溸⟵㛶⦺➝⪼䖎锣寛♇┯곒둛㹀鬕 愆䡝䠂鉿ㄍ溸㕈瀥侷⡡槏籮ꇅ䌤溯䌑庍䨡┬ 蔸⻄㐍㓻ꊞ頳⡁椟㏔┪蔸䉤劵輏♦㝙┬溸玘 臋耈뉉䉿㏔耈뉉侷 ﳱ 㐮ꄣ惓䓺䧯⻄蔦㐃侓岖⾕ 獘劋做긖溸妝㥔둑⯜㐃婠侓妝卲皒溸呬㹾▇┬ ⻄㐍㎌⪼䨿괜彑槁◗⻄虝⻄埞溸侷芎塎圸䧶㐍 做侓妝溸㳴吿侷劋㳴吿㸢噻鉿劋㳴吿䧶㳴 气侷䊘篚獘籮易溸瑮㘫瞐ⶥ◝┿第▇䕁悎ⵋ ⮃┞꿕둛瞐侷芎둑⯜甭掿㝕㳴 (universitas, 蝡饖 university)掿锟做侷芎⺮┪ⱜ兎♣溸㝕◜㞴㴼◗ 锟做둛瞐侷芎溸㕈勔呬㹾蔸♂䔕꼹摿ꇸ䑠㺊䧯 掿槊ꄾ鉿溸둛瞐侷芎둑⯜ 㝕㳴杆虝儱㐃杆㴼獘ⶤ⪠┞聁䭇侷䊘䧶㳴气 溸岻㴼獘㏬棪䕒侓妝䧶侷溽溸靴⾀侱陶瞐做䑑 霾⺪⾕䱅妝周仄勔麃㏬둑溸岻㴼皺⾕䤷皺蔦 岖硆槏㳴吿◜ⳡ⥝䱅岻㴼溸㳴ゼ焒餠╒㐃㳴气 ꄾꇅ岻㴼溸脞雨䍈䕁꽕◙㳴㛶牅㛶䧶ⷈ㛶溸 㳴⛻㝕㳴溸㐍槏⛻翞鼜㎷㴼䔯䔯♧㐍⻐掿⻐ 㳴气⾕侷䊘⯵䔯䔯❔蔦娵嵍⻄㐍⛰☑劕沖㐍岻㴼 溸⻄甦气嵛杆妝侷芎⪠㵽䌤▊摿ꬨ勔㐍䱌侚겑 ╚侷䱅䉤蓽耈뉉⥝簣♧❔⪾劕册┿䧶册ꇂ聋䟩溸 ☭倁㳴玘㳴岻㳴꒜㳴㳴⛻魗呬ꄾ氠偠娵嵍 ⻄㐍汷噻气⺪㐃⻄㐍㳴吿㕃侷㕃噻㎌婠僃劻䧯 ⲍ溸㝕㳴ꌬ儱ꪛ侒䑑册┿㒘溸劆膾炙人口溸 儱ⷈ崦㹺◸㝕㳴䉄묰㝕㳴朙崵㝕㳴⯽脢⪬霾 儱娵嵍劆僃溸㝕㳴輏甭䧯皒偠 1188䌑䌑⚍겴劕 暾饘⛰ⶥ┩┿第⮵ⷈ崦㹺◸㝕㳴摿沽䉂籮⪾⤭䨿 額㝕㳴溸杆虝脯♧岻㳴ꯗ岻㳴掿╭ⲇ䉄묰㝕 㳴朙崵㝕㳴☊㐃ⶥ┞ⶥ◝┿第溸㐍做侷劋㳴吿 瞐㕈狹┪ꄣ惓悎ⵋ䧯ⶥ┩┿第⮵溸㝕㳴氮✑掿 㳴ゼ㕈狹溸☭倁㳴ꯗ(Facultatis Artium, 蝡饖Faculty of Arts) ♧✑掿ꅾ⟵갩唨溸玘㳴ꯗ岻㳴ꯗ꒜㳴 ꯗ┩䨿둛筨㳴ꯗ (Superior Faculties) 篂䧯沖╚♧玘 㳴ꯗ☑饶劆갗⺞ⶥ┩┿第⮵朙崵㝕㳴┞䪠侷䊘瓌 㺈Ɑ堦⺞䐮┞吿♧Ɑ堦⺅⻐呬㹾潸꿕偿䧯掿 蕞朙崵┯潸⛒♼溸㝕㳴㐃Ɑ堦㎃㳴ꯗ╚☊♧⪼玘 㳴ꯗꮩ㻏溸〡㳴掿䒤꽃 蕞䉄묰㝕㳴┞埞ⶥ┩┿第朙崵Ɑ堦㝕㳴惓䧯둑 笢兎㎌掿㳴气⾕侷䊘㝂긋勔㐍☭蕞沖㐍㺈宑璝 魎⛿䨿⯵兎气䫹李氌蔸䐾⮃☭⾀氘气掿䊘气㴙 䱖⛿㶇塎⯜溸괜锣┞꿕✑掿㝕㳴䧯〉ㅠ⛻⛰勔 麃☊劕潸㸫蔦岖⾕鬙氘溸侷芎塎圸䥧兎脯气⮵ 甭 Hall䧶 House䕁㝂甭掿 CollegeHall ⺜蝡 靤┞闋✑㵊蕩䬕┟靤甭 hospitiumHouse䬕┟ 靤甭 domumⸯ䟩☊峅䭱㺈蕩⪣雘沖兎悎䧯❵ 䊘气⛿㶇溸┞甦岻㴼侷芎㶇蕩College 䬕┟倁✑ collegiumⸯ䟩掿劕岻㴼㐍⛻溸㏬둑(corporation) 蔸婠☊首䧯❵䊘气⛿㶇溸┞甦岻㴼侷芎塎圸朙崵 䕁❔Ɑ堦溸CollegeHouse Hallꄻ꿕塎圸╚ 饖✑㳴ꯗ溸霁蕞⻎㝕㳴Faculty 溸╚饖✑㳴ꯗꓨ 鐁╚倁锟做侷芎⺮詈✑┞薯饖✑㳴蕩╚倁㳴汔 阨韣朙崵Ɑ堦College ⯜兎䊬䊬甭掿剹ꯗ♧⯂ 偠 Faculty 溸㳴ꯗ侚婠勔剹岜氠鼜ꄾ鉿溸饖⻐ꄾ 甭✑剹ꯗꄻ◳㝕㳴䧯〉剹ꯗ氮偠䳀❵侷䊘㺈䨿 ⻄甦岻㴼杆妝⺪♧䑜⻄㐍㳴劕䨿ꩾ⾕☑劕潂 饶溸㳴脢Ⲏ潊侷㳴ⲍ茥┯◸偠㝕㳴潳㻏溸㳴ꯗ ⪼ꮩ㻏溸㳴笢⪠㵽☊┯곒㳴ꯗ䨿䱅溸☭倁岻㳴 ꒜㳴玘㳴┯ꇅ氮偠䊘气㐃剹ꯗ⻎㶇⪴蒠✑䛉 蕞⪴侷䊘㸫㳴气⺪♧膂䳀긖⾀阌⥝麃侷蔦劕 㳴ꯗ颊㳴ꀡ┯⯒溸侷芎侞卸沖播剹ꯗ侷䊘䔯䔯⻎ 兎⺇臐偠㳴ꯗ㳴气ꯙ⺇噻偠䨿㻏剹ꯗ侷䊘㜾⻎ 兎⺇噻偠㐃㳴ꯗ⺇臐溸⪼♒剹ꯗ⻐䊘㳴ꯗ剹ꯗ 䕞㸢噻侷芎脯阌⻄⺶⪼舕⛰潸鼸潸䧯潸䕒漩 䔓脯✑掿┞䨿㝕㳴ꬨꞇⲍ茥溸脞雨⾕꽕䱅㳴⛻妝 ꮺ♇氮㝕㳴⾕㳴ꯗ䱌䳣剹ꯗ劕侷芎▇㷞脯摿 꽕䱅㳴⛻▇妝 ♧朙崵┩ꪨ劆⺜脛剹ꯗ▇┞溸㙺꽗剹ꯗ(Merton College) 掿❛霃剹ꯗ氮1261 蔸1263 䌑⚉蝡呬躗 㝕岻㴸 (Lord Chancellor of England) 溸殆曗杆 u 䖎 u 㙺꽗 (Walter de Merton)偠1264 䌑♧瑮氘偠⡡俌 锟ⷂ溸裞曗溫 (Malden) 䨿陮皒掿┞䪠㳴脢䳀❵ ⛿㶇ⱁꀡ☭⻎兎阐皒◗剹ꯗ溸蔦岖皺㻏偠剹 ꯗ溸氘噻1274 䌑ꈶ⫖朙崵䧯掿㝕㳴䧯〉剹ꯗ ▇┞㙺꽗勔☭ꩾ劻䕞侓蕞溽㵎ꬨ➵㶕⮘亘ꩾ 岻䔾㜾☆☊掿侷劋╚☭㎌婠1272 蔸1274 䌑睙 ◝䍳䱌㝕岻㴸訓⚉䕁棪㣙⚉掿耈䖓偅杆侷ⶤ╭侷 (Bishop of Rochester)潳蔸 1277䌑┿仄氮蝡㟗 溽䕤⬮溸2015䌑偈⟵阐剹ꯗ皺⪼紀阌(preamble) 䖊䑜◗ⱁꀡ☭㙺꽗㐃⪼䩘阐溸1274 䌑剹ꯗ睙┩姎 ⟵阐皺溸紀阌倁⪠甭剹ꯗ掿㙺꽗㳴脢▇蕩 (domum scolarium de Merton, 吿做蝡饖The House of the Scholars of Merton)㙺꽗㐃紀阌䳀霃剹ꯗ 兎甭㶇蕩 (domum, domui)兎甭㳴吿 (scolis, 蝡饖 school)겴屜劕䳀College⪼䙎鮐⫅⪾㳴銋蕞⛿ 㶇媓摿沽ゼꈶ朙崵䕁㢾劕College of Merton ▇⻐蕞The House of the Scholars of Merton溸 ꯗ⻐╒鉿剹ꯗ僃劻♧玘㳴掿╭䕁❔ꇂ岻㳴 ꒜㳴☭倁㳴瞐✑掿玘舕☭〉㙺꽗䩘阐溸皺 澚❔剳⦒♒♧┪䉿▇⻐⾕剹ꯗ䧯〉▇ꪨ皒┬溸 靋笵锺㴼◗ⱁꀡ☭⾕䧯〉ꪨ溸⻄甦妝⯈⾕聋ⳡ 睙┩ⶥ⪩唅䒤鞬䧯〉鬬⚉ꓨ╚▇ꓨ溸盛掿㏬篚◧ ⲙ⾕䌐⾕頋䡝䠂 (unity and mutual charity, peace, concord and love) 瞐耙䖎兎蔸♂傽2015 䌑ꄾꇅ 溸槁鉿剹ꯗ皺ꪛ㴶僻聋ⷬ靿剹ꯗ䖪꽆掿㙨ꅾ⪬ 濨琀獮 (for the public benefit) 脯➶ꅾ侷芎㳴肭煝 疶♧㴶侷⺪锶㙺꽗剹ꯗ蔦ⱁꀡ┣⠥┿第♧❔ ┞潳瑺䭧♧㳴銋顇寛☭꿕琀獮溸侷芎⥝簣ⶥ▟┿ 第♧❔朙崵㝕㳴鞐帏譔氌䏼㳴气⪜㳴兎䉂籮 ꈹ㴼㸢噻屜劕⪼♒䖪⟵溸☭倁㳴䧶ⷈ겎侷芎㕈狹 鞐▢屜劕⪼♒㝕㳴塎⯜劕笢簣㐍㕇넊㳴气溸 呬剹ꯗ㳴銋侷芎☊♧㳴气溸╭⟵㸢噻掿╭锣 ⪠㵽㐃ꄻ甦㳴璇╭㸮鞐呬㹾▇┬剹ꯗ气嵛溸 ⻎㶇⪴蒠膂䳀긖⾀䊘◧ⳛ宣㏚䠌及算絛 溸剹ꯗ⥝簣瑃⧩⾕⥝肭袍㌼⪿겎溸侷㕔宯宣袍 ꓨ溸둛咉兰넕瞐瞐摿沽䪎悎着ⶥꓨ锣溸愖瓌뭆 ⵋ芎☭閣虝 ╚锟⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ侷芎溸⯽┿♂气 College Education in China and the West in Historical Perspective 睙┞ꌄ | PART I
16 / / 17 There is a long history of educational institutions, both private and public, in China and in the West. Before the Qin dynasty, there already existed a variety of public educational institutions under different names. From the Qin and Han dynasties onwards until later the Ming and Qing dynasties, there were imperial educational establishments under the central government as well as local schools at provincial, prefectural and county levels. The Imperial Civil Service Examination system (keju) was first introduced in the Sui and Tang dynasties. From the Song to Qing dynasties, it became the main mechanism of recruiting officials for the government, giving rise to different levels of government-run educational institutions, where the Four Books, the Five Classics, and the orthodox teachings of Neo-Confucianism as imperial ideology were taught. During the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods, according to the legends, Confucius gathered some 3,000 disciples who were nurtured by four subjects (virtuous conduct, speech, government, cul ture and learning) and six arts (ri tes, music, archery, char iot ry, ca l l igraphy, ma thema t i cs ) ; while Mozi’s advocacy for universal love and antiaggression attracted hundreds of followers. Both are exemplary of early non-governmental education. For a time during the Six Dynasties period, aristocratic families would set up studies at home, and Buddhist monasteries became popular venues for private learning. By the middle of the Tang dynasty, the name ‘shuyuan’ (academy), literally a house of books, came into being, initially referring to rooms in the house for conserving books, similar to a depository for scriptures in a Buddhist temple, then evolving to refer to an educational institution for learning. At the The Traditions in Education Chapter 1 beginning of the Song dynasty, imperial civil service examinations were used more extensively for the purpose of recruitment and selection for government officials. People started pursuing studies to prepare for the exam, flocking to private institutions, such as the Yingtian Academy, many of whose students would successfully pass the civil service examination and enter the officialdom. This emerging trend of private learning, advocated subsequently by prominent Confucian scholars in the Song dynasty, led to the proliferation of academies in many major cities as well as in scenic countryside. They became the most important private educational institutions outside the government school system for nurturing literati and scholar-officials in the history of traditional education in China. While Chinese traditional education was conducted by both government and private institutions, the two educational channels were in fact inextricably intertwined. Shuyuan founders, supporters, teachers and students or their family members often served in or were associated with the government. Wellknown academies also received recognition through state bestowals of books and name plaques, as well as endowment of properties and land by the local government , in addition to private sponsorship. Therefore, it was impossible to dissociate these private institutions completely from the government establishment. The relationship between academies and the civil service examination system also changed with time. Some continued to prepare students for taking civil service examination; some devoted to pursuit in philosophical and political discourse; yet some became centres of political dissent. In the Qing dynasty, academies resumed to serve mainly for the exam preparation, which was no different from government schools. Shuyuan education emphasised learning from great teachers, seeking answers to questions, studying classics, discussing and debating with one another, and cultivating moral integrity. At academies that believed that the purpose of education is the advancement of the common good rather than attainment of power, wealth and status, classes were not confined to the preparation for the examination, so the learning environment was rather flexible – teachers taught freely in pursuit of excellence, and students came and left as they pleased. On the other hand, some academies branded their masters and their schools of thought to attract students, sometimes leading to students blindly following these masters’ doctrines, forming like-minded cliques and becoming intolerant of other teachings. All in all, traditional education in China, be it public or private, placed equal emphasis on the moral character and knowledge. The curriculum, with the core being the study of Confucian classics and moral principles such as the ‘three cardinal bonds (father-son, rulersubject, husband-wife) and five constant virtues (humanity, integrity, propriety, wisdom, sincerity)’, required also the mastery of both literature and history as well as general knowledge of a wide variety of subjects from the hundred schools of thought such as philosophy, mathematics, agriculture, commerce, craft and engineering. As a result, traditional intellectuals were often highly educated and widely knowledgeable. If they served in official positions, they would try to put theories into practice in governance and serving the society. If they were civilians, they would practise law or medicine, improve the community’s infrastructure, build schools to promote education, and foster harmony in the community. The academies from the Song and Ming dynasties best exemplify this education tradition, as they focused on not only the study of classics in four branches of knowledge, but also the cultivation of moral character and virtues. As advocated by Zhu Xi, the NeoConfucian master and a venerated figure in shuyuan education, it is believed that effective investigation of true knowledge could not be accomplished without sincerity in mind and genuine self-rectification. It goes without saying that only knowledge acquired as such would lead to self-cultivation and proper service to the country. Self-cultivation and the pursuit of knowledge should therefore be complementary to each other; and the wish to contribute to the family and the society should be what motivates learning in the first place. In conclusion, traditional Chinese education emphasises both morality and knowledge, expertise and erudition. The shuyuans in the Song and Ming dynasties, in particular, valued especially the cultivation of the student’s temperament and character as the foundation for learning. Among the great shuyuans during the Song Dynasty, Bailudong Shuyuan (White Deer Grotto Shuyuan) in present Jiangxi was perhaps the most influential, while Yuelu Shuyuan in present Hunan has continued up to the present day and still functions as a higher education institution. The treasured heritage of Bailudong Shuyuan is its Regulations (Bailudong Shuyuan Xuegui) written by Confucian master Zhu Xi in 1179 while he was Prefect of Nanchang. This text was held in esteem as a model of regulations for shuyuans over the centuries. It is stated at the outset of the document that shuyuan education aims to impart to students the protocol and moral of the five cardinal relationships 范寬谿山行旅圖 Travelers Among Mountains and Streams by Fan Kuan ╚锟⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ侷芎溸⯽┿♂气 College Education in China and the West in Historical Perspective 睙┞ꌄ | PART I
18 / / 19 between father and son, sovereign and subject , husband and wife, elders and youngsters, and among friends. Regarding student’s learning, the five stages to follow: to learn broadly, to examine closely, to reflect thoroughly, to judge rightly and to practice earnestly. The first four stages were aimed at full understanding of the knowledge and truths in question. Earnest practice refers to achieving oneness in knowledge and practice. There are three specific aspects to earnest practice: cultivating of oneself, handling of matters and engaging of others. For cultivating oneself, one should keep one’s words sincere and truthful, take respectful and honourable actions, show restraint in anger and desires, and enhance morality and rectify wrongdoing. When handling things, one should opt for righteousness rather than scheming for profit, and manifest the highest principle without seeking merit. Finally, in one’s dealings with others, do not do unto others what one would not have them do unto oneself; reflect on oneself introspectively when faced with obstacles. These exemplary principles illustrate the ultimate goal of shuyuan education, which is the pursuit of morality and ethics. The teaching method is centred on allowing students to fully understand and take to heart moral principles through thinking, inquiry, judgment, and practice. Moreover, having the knowledge is far from enough as it must be put into practice. There are several guidelines to be followed in practice, which correspond to the three aspects of personal cultivation, problem solving, and interaction with others respectively. Yuelu Shuyuan was founded in 976 AD by Zhu Dong, then Prefect of Tanzhou (present day Changsha), on the original site of a Buddhist temple school. When Emperor Zhenzong of the Song Dynasty summoned Zhou Shi, then head of the shuyuan, and conferred the shuyuan a name plaque inscribed in the emperor’s cal l igraphy, the shuyuan became widely known throughout the empire. During the Southern Song Dynasty, thanks to the Confucian Master Zhang Shi’s teaching at the shuyuan, as well as his famous meeting with Zhu Xi where they discussed and debated The Doctrine of the Mean, the academy’s reputation rose once again and came to be acclaimed as one of the Four Great Shuyuans. When heading the Tanzhou government in 1194, Zhu Xi rejuvenated and expanded Yuelu Shuyuan. He gave lectures in person during which he might have introduced his Regulations of Bailudong Shuyuan. It was said that his disciples numbered as many as 1,000. In spite of the ups and downs over the three dynasties of Yuan, Ming and Qing that followed, the shuyuan was sustained by continual restoration by the government or individuals, and thus escaped fading into oblivion. Throughout the imperial period, Yuelu Shuyuan persisted with its traditional education aim to cultivate scholar-officials (shidafu) with high moral integrity who could govern beneficently. It nurtured generations of elites of Hunan, such as Zeng Guofan, renowned for their erudition and achievements. During the education reforms in the late Qing Dynasty, shuyuan were replaced by xuetang (schools) and the imperial civil service examinations were abolished and replaced by the Western schooling system. Yuelu Shuyuan also evolved under different names and organisational fomrs such as Hunan Institute of Higher Learning (1903), Hunan University (1926), National Hunan University (1937) and Hunan University (1959). In 1986, Hunan University completed the restoration of Yuelu Shuyuan as a constituent unit of the university and it retained the name of Yuelu Shuyuan. Within the academy, an institute of cultural studies, and the bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral and post-doctoral degree programmes in history, philosophy, archaeology and other disciplines were established one after another. According to the university’s profile, Hunan University has inherited and carried forward the tradition of ‘transmission of knowledge and morality so as to benefit the people, being patriotic and pragmatic, contributing to society with practical knowledge, and being open-minded and inclusive’. Its overarching goal is to nurture talents of solid foundation and broad perspective with both ability and integrity. The Western education system can be traced back to the Paideia education of the ancient Greek city-states. The concept of Paideia implies a wide range of meaning including culture, civilisation, literacy, and civilising. Different from China’s educational development trajectory, which evolved from a government system into a dual system of private and government schools, in the Greek city-states, the evolution is from a military education supported by the aristocracy to a non-military civil education, as exemplified by Athenian education. In earlier times, individual teachers (didaskalos) took on students, mainly from the nobility, and imparted knowledge and skills of sports, writing and art, in order to cultivate ‘gentlemanly qualities’ (kalos kagathos) of both virtue and intelligence. After the 5th century AD, the school-like institution scholés emerged in the Paideia system, and the scope of education was expanded to include grammar, logic, rhetoric, philosophy, ethics, oratory, debate, music, arts, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, geography, history, politics and physical education. Among them, grammar, logic and rhetoric gradually came to form the three arts (trivium), which were the knowledge to be acquired by free citizens (liberalis) as opposed to slaves. For further learning, free citizens were expected to engage the four arts (quadrivium), namely astronomy, arithmetic, geometry and music. These seven arts (ars) constituted the main part of the liberal arts education (ars liberalis), which aimed to cultivate liberal citizens of virtue and intelligence who were erudite and capable of exploring the truth of the universe and life. The liberal arts education was also known as enkuklios paideia, referring to whole-person education or holistic education, where enkuklios bore meanings of well-rounded, circular, general, common, etc. Some of these scholés evolved into famous educational institutions, for exploring knowledge, debating the truth, and as a repository of books and literature, as was the case with the Academy established by Plato and the Lyceum by Aristotle. This kind of Roman-Hellenistic education was later provided throughout the Roman empire, often with official funding. The curricula carried on the Hellenistic Paideia tradition, emphasising humanities (humanitas) and usually covered liberal arts education as represented by the seven arts. It also incorporated the Roman legal tradition dating back to the times of the Law of the Twelve Tables (Duodecim Tabulae) of the 5th century BC. The purpose of the Roman humanistic education was likewise to nurture liberal Roman citizens with both intelligence and virtue. The decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD marked the beginning of the Middle Ages. Early in this period, the principal centres of learning shifted to Christian monasteries. By transcribing ancient texts, monks were trained to be proficient in the Greek and Roman classics and in the interpretation of the Bible, and they were also cultivated to uphold the Christian ethics of nobility and chastity, compassion and charity. After hundreds of years punctuated by wars, from the city-states, principalities and kingdoms, which claimed to rule locally or regionally, to the Holy Roman Empire and Roman Catholic Church, which claimed to overrule the entire Western world, all formed their respective political and social systems of authority. In this plethora of power regimes, various educational institutions sprang up to cater to the different needs in their respective territories. There were local government schools, church-run schools, professional guilds, private schools brought together and run by students and teachers, etc. After the 12th century, a higher education system called university (universitas) came into being, which was an epoch-making development in the history of Western education and established the basic model of Western higher education. With an immeasurable impact that lasts to the present time, it has become the globally adopted system of higher education. The defining features of a university is that of a statutory association of professors and/or students in a particular community, recognised and authorised by the ruling powers or by the Papacy, to impart academic knowledge, to confer degrees to those who passed the statutory examinations, and to administer its affairs in accordance with its own charter and statutes. Universities tend to remain in their place of establishment, and thus often take their location to be their namesake. Students and teachers, on the other hand, came from all corners of Europe yet enjoyed all the legal privileges and rights 位於雅典娜林多斯面向愛琴海的多力克神廟 Doric temple, Athena, Lindos, facing Aegean Sea ╚锟⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ侷芎溸⯽┿♂气 College Education in China and the West in Historical Perspective 睙┞ꌄ | PART I
20 / / 21 as the local residents. The education would be almost entirely unrelated to local matters, focusing instead on issues of general or universal significance such as humanities, theology, jurisprudence and medicine, following the Greco-Roman education tradition that preceded it. The awarded degree would be widely recognised and graduates could teach in schools or pursue their qualified profession throughout Europe; the universities with early success were therefore open and universal. The most famous ones were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris and the University of Oxford. The former is believed to be the first university in Europe, claimed to be founded in 1188. Although the founding date is in dispute, certainly, by the early 13th century, the University of Bologna undoubtedly had the characteristics of what constitutes a university in our understanding, with its main focus on legal education and jurisprudence. Established from religious schools of the 11th and 12th centuries, the University of Paris and University of Oxford also evolved to become universities in the early 13th century. The universities comprised the Facultatis Artium (Faculty of Arts) as the foundation level of learning, and three Superior Faculties, namely, the Faculty of Theology, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Medicine, for further education. Among these faculties, the Faculty of Theology was the most prestigious one. In the early 13th century, a group of professors from Oxford University moved to Cambridge and built another university, thus named as the University of Cambridge. With a similar structure, it became a university on a par with Oxford. Among the four early Faculties of Cambridge, the Faculty of Theology and its affiliated philosophy degree were initially among its strengths. As with the University of Paris, when the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge were being established in the early 13th century, the need for a mechanism to arrange accommodation for students and teachers arose. This was because the majority of students and professors were non-locals, and the renting of accommodation from local residents sometimes led to feuds and even violence and casualties. This need led to the creation of a type of educational institution that was a constituent of the university but had its own independent governance and assets. Some such lodgings were named as a Hall, or House, and latterly others were named as a College. Hall is an Old English word for guest house, derived from hospitium in Latin; House, or domum in Latin, meant a house in general. Both terms evolved into a form of statutory educational accommodation for professors and students. As for College, for which collegium in Latin, it originally meant a corporation with legal status. All three evolved into a form of statutory educational accommodation for professors and students alike. At Oxford and Cambridge, the names College, House and Hall were officially translated into Chinese as ‘ 㳴ꯗ’ (xueyuan), a Chinese term in use to mean a disciplinary-based academic faculty of a university in modern Chinese. In Chinese literature on the history of Western education, College, House and Hall are sometimes translated as ‘ 㳴蕩’ (xueshe). When discussing the College system at Oxford and Cambridge, the Chinese academic community often refers to it as the ‘ 剹ꯗ’ (shuyuan), as distinguished from ‘ 㳴ꯗ’ (faculty). To avoid confusion, this book adopts the more widely used term of ‘ 剹ꯗ’ (shuyuan) as the translation of ‘College’ in the Oxbridge context. These university-affiliated colleges were able to attract well-educated and reputable scholars from all over Europe, as they provided accommodations and various statutory privileges for the residential professors. The colleges’ educational role was no less important than that of the University’s faculties and their affiliated departments, and they offered academic subjects on humanities, law, medicine and theology just as those taught in the faculties. However, as professors and students shared communal meals, studied and lived together at the college, professors were able to interact more closely with their students and teach them by example, which has an educational impact that cannot be achieved through lectures at faculties. Of course, college professors were often employed by faculties at the same time, and students, apart from being taught by professors affiliated to their own college, were also taught in faculties by professors affiliated with other colleges. From the perspective of discipline-specific education, colleges and faculties each has its own role to play, but they achieved synergy by complementing and supplementing each other. Nevertheless, the authority to examine outcome of learning and award degrees accordingly, both of which constitute key functions of a university, remained within the purview of the university and faculties. Colleges had the responsibility to educate but not the right to confer degrees. For instance, Merton College, one of the three oldest colleges in Oxford, was founded in 1264 by Walter de Merton, after his first term as Lord Chancellor of England from 1261 to 1263, on his private property in Malden, to the southwest of London, to provide accommodation for a group of scholars. The founder, who was close to the royal family, prominent in law and diplomacy, and influential as a clergyman, also provisioned land and property and established a charter of self-governance for the new institution. In 1274, after Merton’s second term as Lord Chancellor from 12721274, it was moved to Oxford, acquired another name of Merton College, and became one of the university’s constituent colleges. Merton was appointed Bishop of Rochester in the same year until his death in 1277. In the 3rd Revised Statutes of the College of 1274 drawn up by Merton, which named the institution as ‘The House of the Scholars of Merton’ (domum scolarium de Merton) and referred to the institution alternatingly as a dormitory (domum, domui), and a school (scolis) in the preamble. Although the word ‘college’ is not mentioned in this 1274 charter, there is no doubt that the institution was both academic and residential in nature, and thus a genuine College. The name ‘College of Merton’ came into existence after the move to Oxford, and it coexisted alongside the original name ‘The House of the Scholars of Merton’. During the early years, theology was the main focus of the College, but later it also offered subjects in law, medicine and humanities. The statutes drawn up by Merton, him being a clergyman, resembled an oath in the name of God between him the founder and the College members, stipulating their respective rights and duties. Article 38 particularly emphasized the virtues of unity and mutual charity, peace, concord and love as the most important of the duties. Today, the current statutes of the college, which were adopted in 2015 state at the outset that the college must advance education, learning, research and religion ‘for the public benefit’. It is evident that in the seven centuries since its establishment, Merton College has upheld a tradition of pursuing the betterment of mankind through academic pursuit. Since the 19th century, Oxford University has offered a broad curriculum, yet each student enrolling into a particular course (major subject), with no requirements in compulsory foundational studies in humanities or liberal arts education. Nor was there a university mechanism for systematically moulding the character of the students. The academic education of the colleges mainly focused on the students’ chosen subjects. Under this discipline-oriented curriculum, the communal meals and shared living spaces, the earnest advice, the interaction between professors and students, the contagious atmosphere of intellectual inquiry, the peer earning experience, the elaborate rituals and traditions of the college, the stately and elegant chapel and the solemn formal dinners, all undoubtedly played a very important role in the subtle nurturing of students’ character in addition to acquisition of knowledge. ╚锟⛿㶇䑑剹ꯗ侷芎溸⯽┿♂气 College Education in China and the West in Historical Perspective 睙┞ꌄ | PART I